Small-mouthed Salamander / Salamandre é nez court
The Small-mouthed Salamander is dark brown to black on top with gray to grayish yellow
patches. It has a black belly and can grow to over 15 cm in total length, including
the long tail.
The mottled appearance of this species is somewhat similar to the related
Jefferson Salamander Complex but the
Small-mouthed Salamander lacks the bluish flecks.
The Small-mouthed Salamander has the most restricted distribution of any salamander in
Canada. It is found only on Pelee Island in extreme southern Ontario. Outside of Canada,
the Small-mouthed Salamander is found in a diagonal swath from Lake Erie to Texas, excluding
the east coast states.
This salamander is found in a variety of habitat types ranging from deciduous bottomlands
to moist pine forests. It can sometimes be found near temporary ponds or along streams.
Breeding occurs in the early spring in streams, ponds and even ditches. One female can
lay up to 700 eggs, either attached to vegetation or on the underside of rocks. The
larvae hatch at just over 1 cm in length and transform into salamanders by mid-summer.
Where their distributions overlap, Small-mouthed Salamanders sometimes interbreed with the
Spotted Salamanders. The young produced are
Outside of the breeding season, adults are terrestrial, often living underground.
Salamanders are carnivores eating a large variety of insects and other invertebrates
such as spiders and worms. When threatened the Small-mouthed Salamander will raise and
wave its tail. This may attract the predator to the tail rather than the rest of the
The Small-mouthed Salamander is a southern species and in Canada is restricted to Pelee
Island. On the island it has declined as a rsult of habitat loss and degradation and
it has been designated Endangered by