Visit our new website

Canadian Herpetological Society





Société d'herpétologie du Canada



Anaxyrus fowleri

formerly Bufo fowleri

Fowler's Toad / Crapaud de Fowler


Fowler's Toad

Description
Fowler's Toad is a large yellow, green or brown toad with a light stripe down the middle of the back and large dark blotches. It has elongate parotoid glands which contact its prominent cranial crests. Adults can reach up to 6 cm.

Call
The call of Fowler's Toad sounds like a crying baby or a nasal "waaa", lasting two to five seconds.

Confusing Species
The Eastern American Toad overlaps the Canadian distribution of the Fowler's Toad. The parotoid glands of the Eastern American Toad do not contact its cranial crests. These species occasionally hybridize.

Distribution
In Canada, Fowler's Toad is limited to a small number of locations along the north shore of Lake Erie. It is also found in the eastern United States.

Habitat
Fowler's Toad is found in sandy shoreline and peninsula habitat where it breeds in backwater marshes.

Reproduction
Calling may begin in late April but breeding usually occurs in May when evening temperatures are above 14oC. The breeding season may be interrupted by cool weather resulting in groups of tadpoles born, and completing metamorphosis at different times during the summer. Over 6000 eggs may be laid by each female. At cool temperatures, tadpole development is a bit slower than that of the American Toad.

Natural History
Fowler's Toads are preyed upon by garter snakes, water snakes and raccoons. Maturity may be reached as young as one year but normally takes two years. Individuals up to four years old have been found in the wild.

Conservation Concerns
Fowler's Toads rely on early successional shoreline habitats which are both created and destroyed by severe storms. As a result their populations fluctuate substantially, but there is no evidence for an overall declining trend. The species is considered vulnerable in Canada by COSEWIC