formerly Bufo fowleri
Fowler's Toad / Crapaud de Fowler
Fowler's Toad is a large yellow, green or brown toad with a light stripe down the
middle of the back and large dark blotches. It has elongate
parotoid glands which
contact its prominent cranial
crests. Adults can reach up to 6 cm.
of Fowler's Toad sounds like a crying baby or a nasal "waaa", lasting two to
The Eastern American Toad overlaps the Canadian
distribution of the Fowler's Toad. The parotoid glands of the Eastern American Toad do not
contact its cranial crests. These species occasionally hybridize.
In Canada, Fowler's Toad is limited to a small number of locations along the north
shore of Lake Erie. It is also found in the eastern United States.
Fowler's Toad is found in sandy shoreline and peninsula habitat where it breeds
in backwater marshes.
Calling may begin in late April but breeding usually occurs in May when evening
temperatures are above 14oC. The breeding season may be interrupted by
cool weather resulting in groups of tadpoles born, and completing metamorphosis
at different times during the summer. Over 6000 eggs may be laid by each female.
At cool temperatures, tadpole development is a bit slower than that of the American
Fowler's Toads are preyed upon by garter snakes, water snakes and raccoons. Maturity
may be reached as young as one year but normally takes two years. Individuals up
to four years old have been found in the wild.
Fowler's Toads rely on early successional shoreline habitats which are both created
and destroyed by severe storms. As a result their populations fluctuate substantially,
but there is no evidence for an overall declining trend. The species is considered
vulnerable in Canada by COSEWIC